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HARPER'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA

of

UNITED STATES HISTORY

From 458 a.d. to 1909 '.V,' 5V>'>

BASED UPON THE PLAN OF ; > > "

BENSON JOHN LOSSINQ, LL.D.

SOMETIME EDITOR OF "THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL RECORD" AND AUTH(jliy>F '■ , , >'

" THE PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE revolution" " THE PICTORIAL FIEIJ^-i j > /' ,'

BOOK OF THE WAR OF l8l2" ETC., ETC., E I C. 1 o ' )ji'>

WITH SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS COVERING EVERY PHASE OF AMERICAN HISTOT'Y aNIJ DEVELOPMENT BY p-'TNENT AUTHORITIES, INCLUDING /,^, , '. . ^

JOHN FISKE. WOODROW WILSON, Ph.D.. l,L.D» -

THE AMERICAN mSTORIA.\ PRESIDENT OF PRINCETON VNIVERMTY ^

WM. R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L., LL.D.

PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PROF. OF HISTORY UNIV. OF TOROVTC'

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, Ph.D. MOSES COIT TYLER, LL.D.

PROF. OF HISTORY AT HARVARD PROF. OF HISTORY AT CORNELL

JOHN B. MOORE. EDWARD G. BOURNE, Ph.D.

PROF. OF INTERNATIONAL LAIV AT COLUMBIA PROF. OF HISTORY AT YALE

JOHN FRYER, A.M., LL.D. R. J. H. GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.

PROF. OF LIIERATURH AT UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA PROF. OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES AT COLUMBIA

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, Ph.D., LL.D. ALFRED T. MAHAN, D.C.L., LL.D.

V. S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION CAPTAIN UNITED STATES NAVY (Retired'

ETC., ETC., ETC., ETC.

WITH A PREFACE ON THE STUDY OF AMERICAN HISTORY BY

WOODROW WILSON, Ph.D., LL.D.

PRESIDENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

AUTHOR OF

"A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE," ETC., ETC.

WITH ORIGIiVAL DOCUMEATTS, PORTRAITS, MAPS, PLANS, ^c.

COMPLETE IN TEN VOLUMES VOL. IX

HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS NEW YORK - = - LONDON

Copyngnt, 1905, by Haki'ER & Brothers.

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothers.

ylil rights reserved.

LIST OF PLATES

President William Howard Taft Frontispiece

President Zachary Taylor ....... Facing page 22

The Storming of Fort Ticonderoga . . . . " " 78

The Battle of Trenton " "116

President John Tyler " " 144

Washington Receiving the Announcement of

His Election to the First Presidency of

the United States " " 168

MAPS

The Original Thirteen States Facing page 160

United States . . . / » " " 272

. 35333

HARPER'S ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

UNITED STATES HISTORY

T.

Taft, Alphonso, jurist; born in Towns- hend, Vt., Nov. 5, 1810; graduated at Yale College ; admitted to tlie bar in 1838 ; practised in Cincinnati, O. ; and was judge of the Superior Covirt of Cincinnati in 18G6-72. He was made Secretary of War in ]\Iarch, 1876, and in May of the same year was transferred to the Attorney-Gen- eralship, serving till March, 1877; was United States minister to Austria in 1882- 84; was then transferred to Russia, where

lie served one year. He died in San Diego, Cal., May 21, 1891.

Taft, LoRADO, sculptor; born in Elm- wood, 111., April 29, 18G0; graduated at the University of Illinois in 1879; student at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, in 1880-83; instructor at the Chicago Art Institute since 1886; and lecturer on art in the University of Chicago since 1893. He is a member of the National Sculpture So- ciety and the Western Society of Artists,

TAFT, WILLIAM HOWARD

Taft, William Howard, born in Cin- cinnati, O., Sept. 15, 1857; son of Al- phonso Taft, graduated at Woodward High School 1874; at Y'ale 1878 second in the class of 121 members; and at Cin- cinnati College Law School in 1880. His political record since then has been:

Jan., 1881. Assistant Public Prose- cutor, Cincinnati.

March, 1882. Resigned and became U. S. Internal Revenue Collector. (Resigned March, 1883.)

Jan., 1885. Assistant County Solicitor.

March, 1887. Resigned and appointed Judge of the Superior Cour.t.

April, 1888. Elected to the same posi- tion. He decided the case of Moore Brothers vs. the Bricklayers' Union, since become a leading case on the law of boycott.

Feb., 1890. Resigned and became Soli- citor-General of the United States.

March, 1892. Resigned and became Judge of the United States Court for the Sixth Judicial Circuit. He decided the Addystone Pipe Co. case enforcing the Sherman anti-trust law; the Phelan con-

tempt case against a strike-leader, which later on formed the basis of the defence of the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen and Firemen, successfully resulting in hav- ing the injunction against them dissolved.

March, 1900. Visited and became president of the Philippine Commission.

July 4, 1901. Inaugairated first Civil Governor of the Philippines.

Dec, 1901. Visited the United States - by order of the Secretary of War.

July, 1902. Conferred with Pope Leo XIII. and committee of cardinals at Rome, and made a satisfactory settlement as to the friars' landsi in the Philippines.

Dec, 1903.— Left the Philippines to be- come

Feb., 1904.— Secretary of War.

Nov.. 1904. Visited Panama.

July-Sep., 1905. Visited the Philippines with a party of Senators and Congress- men.

Sep., 1906. Visited Cuba and acted awhile as Provisional Governor, re-estab- lishing peace in the island.

March-April, 1907. Visited Panama, Cuba, and Porto Rico.

TALBOT— TALCOTT

Autumn of 1907. Opened the Congress in Manila, returning nid the Siberian Rail- way.

June IS, 190S. Xoniinated for Presi- dent on the first ballot by 702 votes at the Chicago Convention.

June 19. 190S. Resigned as Secretary of War; succeeded by Luke E. Wright.

Xov. 3, 1908.— .Elected President by 321 votes in the Electoral College against 162 for William Jennings Bryan.

1909. ^Visited Panama to inspect the canal.

Mr. Taft's ambition for years was to sit on the Bench of the Supreme Court of the United States. He told the Presi- dent that he would rather wear the robe of a Supreme Court Justice than be Presi- dent of the L'nited States. Although several occasions oifered, he put aside his ambition so as to serve the country as a diplomatic and political representative, as his record above given shows. His views as to the tariff were declared in his speech at Bath, Maine, in Sept., 1906: "I be- lieve that since the passage of the Dingley Bill there has been a change m the busi- ness conditions of the country, making it wise and just to revise the schedules of the existent tariff." Furthermore, he has consistently striven to persuade the South to resume its proper place in taking part in the decision of great political questions by freeing itself from the trammels of blind adhesion to any one party.

Tailfer, Patrick, physician; lived in the eighteenth century. He emigrated to the colony of Georgia, and, becoming dis- satisfied with the conduct of affairs, he left the colony in 1740 and went to Charleston, S. C, where, with Hugh An- derson and David Douglass, he printed A Xarrative of the Colony of Georgia from the first Heitlement thereof until the Present Period n741).

Talbot, .John, colonial bishop; born in Wymondham, England, in 164.5. In 1704 the clergj' of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania petitioned for a bishop. Tal- bot was favored by Queen Anne in his ef- forts, but failed to obtain the appointment of a suffragan, and he resolved to ask for fonrtfcration for himself by nonjuring bishops. This was done by two bishops, and in 1722 he returned to America and assumed episcopal authority. The gov-

ernor of Pennsylvania (Keith) complained of him to the Lords of the Privy Seal, and he was summoned to England, but did not go. He died in Burlington, N. J., Nov. 29, 1727.

Talbot, Silas, naval officer; born in Dighton, Mass.. in 1751; was captain in a Rhode Island regiment at the siege of Boston; accompanied the American army

SILAS TALBOT.

to New York; and, for skilful operations with fire-rafts against the British ship- ping there, received from Congress the commission of major. In the summer of" 1776 he accepted the command of a fire- brig on the Hudson. By orders of Wash- ington, after gaining Harlem Heights (Sept. 15), Talbot attempted the destruc- tion of the British vessels of war lying off the present 124th Street, New York City. At 2 A.M. on the 16th, Talbot ran down the river and, grappling the Rom- ney, set his brig on fire. The crew of the brig escaped in a boat, and the Romney soon freed herself without injury. The other war-vessels fied out of the harbor in alarm. Talbot received a severe wound in the defence of Fort Mifflin, and gave material aid to General Sullivan on Rhode Island in 1778. A few weeks later he captured a British floating battery anchored in one of the channels com- manding Newport, and for this exploit

TALCOTT— TALLMADGE

was, commissioned captain. In his prize (the Pigot) he cruised off the New Eng- land coast, capturing several prizes. In 1780 he was captured and confined in the prison-ship Jersey, removed to England, and exchanged in 1781. After the war he purchased tlie confiscated estate of Sir William Johnson, near the Mohawk River; served in the New York Assembly, and was a member of Congress in 1793-94. He was employed in 1794 to superintend the construction of the frigate Constitution, wliich, in 1799, was his flag-ship in a cruise to the West Indies. He resigned Sept. 21, 1801. He died in New York City June 30, 1813.

Talcott, Andrew, civil engineer; born in Glastonbury, Conn., April 20, 1797; g'raduated at the United States Military Academy in 1818; accompanied Gen. H. Atkinson, 1819, to establish military posts on the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. He devised the Talcott method for determining territorial latitudes by ob- servations of stars near the zenith. He died in Richmond, Va., April 22, 1883.

Talcott, George, military officer; born in Glastonbury, Conn., Dec. 6, 1786; join- ed the army in 1813; promoted first lieu- tenant in March, 1814; served through the Mexican War, being promoted colonel and chief of ordnance in March, 1848. Talcott was court-martialled and forced to retire on July 8, 1851. Many promi- nent men declared the sentence unjust and illegal. Talcott died in Albany, N. Y., April 25, 1862.

Talcott, John, military officer; born in Braintrce, England, abovxt 1630; set- tled in Boston, and later in Hartford, Conn. ; was made ensign of colonial troops in 1650; became captain in 1660; treas- urer of the colony in 1660-76; and was one of the patentees named in the charter granted to Connecticut in 1662 by Charles I. He served in the Indian War of 1676 as major, and as head of the '' standing army " of Connecticut, accompanied by 200 Mohican and Pequod Indians, fought a successful battle at the Housatonic. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel during the war. Many of liis official papers are pre- served among the State records in Hart- ford. He died in Hartford, Conn., July 23, 1688. Talladega, Battle at. On the evening

of Nov. 8, 1813, Gen. Andrew Jackson and his troops were resting within 6 miles of Talladega, one of the chief gathering- places of the hostile Creek Indians in Talladega county, Ala., a little east of the Coosa River. Jackson's forces, composed of 1,200 infantry and 800 mounted men, were disposed for action so as to enclose the foe in a circle. He moved at sunrise, Nov. 9. The battle soon became general, and raged for about fifteen minutes, when the Indians broke and fled in all direc- tions. They were pursued for several miles, and over 300 of the dusky war- riors were slain, besides a large number wounded. The Americans lost fifteen killed and eighty-five wounded.

Tallasahatchee, Battle at. The mas- sacre at Fort Mimg (see Mims, Fort, Massacre at) stirred the indignation of the wliole people of the Southwest. Jack- son was then prostrate at a Nashville inn, from the effects of a bullet received from the hands of Thomas H. Benton, in a duel. He appealed to the Tennesseeans to take the field. Five thousand men speedi- ly responded. Jackson despatched (Sept. 26, 1813) Gen. John Coffee, with 500 dragoons and as many mounted volunteers as could join him immediately, towards tlie Creek country. Jackson joined him soon afterwards, and drilled his troops thoroughly for the emergency. When he arrived at the Coosa he was informed that the hostile Creeks were assembled at Tallasahatcliee. Jackson sent Coffee, with 1,000 horsemen, to attack them. He was accompanied by friendly Creeks and Cherokees. On the morning of Oct. 3 the Indians were decoyed out of the town and were immediately smitten by a volley of bullets. The Creeks fought valiantly. Inch by inch they were pushed back by their assailants, who attacked them at all points. Not one would ask quarter. Every warrior was killed. Fully 200 In- dians perished, and eightj^-four women and children were made prisoners. The loss of the Americans was five killed and forty-one wounded. Having destroyed the town, Coffee marched back to Jackson's camp on the Coosa, followed by a train of sorrowful captives.

Tallmadge, Benjamin, military offi- cer; born in Brookhaven, N. Y., Feb. 25, 1754; entered the patriot army as

TALLMADGE— TAMMANY

lieutenant of a Connecticut regiment in June, 1776, and soon rose to the rank of colonel. In 1779-80 he was engaged in expeditions against bodies of British and Tories on Long Island, and was in some of the principal battles of the war. In

the fall of 1780 he had the custody of Major Andre until after that officer's execution. He was long in Washington's military family, and was his confidential correspondent. He became a successful merchant, and, from 1801 to 1817, was a member of Congress. He died in Litch- field, Conn., March 7, 1835.

Tallmadge, James, la^vyer; born in Stamford, X. Y., Jan. 28, 1778; graduated at Brown University in 1798; studied law and practised for several years; but later turned his attention to agriculture. He was for some time private secretary to Gen. George Clinton; had command of a regiment in New York during the War of 1812-1.5; was member of Congress in 1817- 19, and introduced an amendment to the bill restricting slavery to the region west of the Mississippi; was a member of the State legislature in 1825-26; visited Rus- sia and introduced American machinery there in 18.35; and was one of the founders of the University of the City of New York. He died in New York, Sept. 20, 185.3.

Talmadge, Thomas de Witt, clergy- man; born in Bound Brook, N. J., Jan. 7, 1832; studied at the University of the City of New York, and graduated at the New Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1856; was ordained pastor of the Reformed

Dutch Church in Belleville, N. J., in the same year; was pastor of the Central Presbyterian Church (popularly kno\vn as the Tabernacle) of Brooklyn, in 1869-94, during which time this well-known place of worship was destroyed by fire three times. Feeling himself tuiable to stand the strain of building another church edifice, he removed to Washington, D. C. His sermons were published every week for twenty-nine years. In 1900 it was esti- mated that their publication in 3,600 papers carried them to no less than 30,000,000 people weekly throughout the world. He was editor of the Christian Herald for many years. He died in Wash- ington, D. C, April 12, 1902.

Talon, Pierre, explorer; born in Can- ada after 1650; was with the La Salle expedition to Illinois in 1687. After the murder of La Salle he lived for a time with the Cenis Indians. Later he became an interpreter to Franciscan missionaries who had arrived at the village. Subse- quently he went, with a sister and two brothers, to Mexico. He ^vl•ote an ac- count of La Salle's death in a work en- titled 'Narrative of Pierre and Jean Ta- lon, hy the Order of Count Ponchartrain, to their Arrival at Vera Cruz, Sept. H, 1698. He died after 1700.

Tammany, St., a great and good chief of the Delaware Indians, called Tamenand by the early settlers of Pennsylvania. He is supposed to have been one of those who made the famous treaty with Will- iam Penn {q, v.). He was revered by the Delawares almost like a deity, and old and young went to him for counse\. He never had his equal among them. In the Revolutionary War the admirers of the good chief conferred upon him the title of saint, and he was established as the patron saint of America. His name was inserted in some calendars, and his festival was celebrated on May 1 of each year. After the Revolution an associ- ation was formed in Philadelphia, called the Tammany Society. On May 1 they paraded the streets, with bucktails in their hats, and proceeded to a pleasant retreat out of to\vn, which they called the " wigwam," where, after a long talk, or Indian " palaver," had been delivered, and the calumet of peace and friendship had been duly smoked, they spent the

TAMMANY SOCIETY— TANNEIl

day in festivity and mirth. After dinner Indian dances were performed in front of the wigwam, the calumet was again smoked, and the company separated.

Tammany Society, or Columbian Or- der, a political organization formed chief- ly through the exertions of William Moo- ney, an upholsterer in the city of New York, at the beginning of the administra- tion of President Washington. Its first meeting was held on May 13, 1789. The society took its name from St. Tammany. The officers of the society consisted of a grand sachem and thirteen inferior sa- chems, representing the President and the governors of the thirteen States. Besides these there was a grand council, of which the sachems were members. It was a

tammany hall.

very popular society and patriotic in its influence. Its membership included most of the best men of New York City. No party politics were tolerated in its meet- ings. But when Washington denounced " self-constituted societies," in consequence of the violent resistance to law made by the secret Democratic societies, at the time of the Whiskey Insurrection {q. v.), nearly all the members left it, be- lieving their society to be included in the reproof. Mooney and others adhered

to the organization, and from that time it became a political society. They met at first in Martling's Long Room, on the corner of Nassau and Frankfort streets. In 1800 the society determined to build a wigwam, and Tammany Hall was erect- ed by them on that spot. Many years af- terwards they abandoned the old wigwam and made their quarters in a fine build- ing on Fourteenth Street, adjoining the Academy of Music. Although the actual membership of the society embraced only a few hundred men, it has been able for many years to control and poll many thousand votes and wield an immense power in the politics both of New York City and of the State. Its connection with the gigantic frauds of the Tweed ring led to a natural reaction and a temporary check. But it soon recovered its prestige and increased power. See New York Chronology, in this volume.

Tampa, a city, port of entry, and county seat of Hillsboro county, Fla. During the American-Spanish War in 1898 it was one of the rendezvous for the American army when being assembled for the invasion of Cuba. Population (1900), 15,839.

Tampico, a seaport town of Mexico, in the State of Tamaulipas, on the Pa- nuco River, 5 miles from the Gulf of Mexico; was taken possession of by the fleet of Commodore Conner, Nov. 14, 1846, in the early part of the war with Mexico.

Taney, Roger Brooke, jurist; born in Calvert county, Md., March 17, 1777; grad- uated at Dickinson College in 1795; ad- mitted to the bar in 1799. He was of a family of English Roman Catholics who settled in Maryland. At the age of twenty-three he was a member of the Maryland Assembly; was State Senator in 1816, and attorney-general of Mary- land in 1827. In 1831 President Jackson appointed him United States Attorney- General, and in 1836 he was appointed chief-justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, to succeed Judge Marshall. In 1857 he gave his famous opinion in the Dred Scott Case ( q. v. ) , and was an earnest upholder of the slave-system. He died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 12, 1864.

Tanner, Benjamin, engraver; born in New York City, March 27, 1775; removed to Philadelphia, Pa., in 1799, and with his brother Henry founded a map-publishing

1:ANNER— TAPPAN

establishment. He also founded the bank- note engraving house of Tanner, Vallance, Kearny & Co., in 1816. Later this enter- prise was abandoned and he founded a blank-check-note and draft publishing con- cern. His engravings include Apotheosis of Washington ; Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, Sept'^ 10,' 1813; The Launch of the Steam Frigate Fulton; Macdonough's Victory on Lake Champlain, and Defeat of the British Army at Plattsiurg hy General McComb, Sept. 11, 1S14; The Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktoion; America Guided hy Wisdom, etc. He died in Balti- more, Md., Nov. 14, 1848.

Tanner, Benjamin Tucker, clergyman; born of African parents in Pittsburg, Pa., Dec. 25, 1835; studied theology in the Western Theological Seminary; was editor of the Christian Recorder for sixteen years; founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church Revicic, of which he was editor for four years. He was ordained bishop in 1888. His publications include The Origin of the 'Negro; The Negro In Holy Writ; The Color of Solomon: What? etc.

Tanner, Heney S., cartographer; born in New York City in 1786; brother of Benjamin Tanner; settled in Philadelphia early in life; returned to New York in 1850. His maps include the Nev) Ameri- can Atlas; The World; Map of the United States of Mexico; Map of Philadelphia; and Map of the United States of AmeV' ica. He was also the author of Memoir on the Recent Surveys in the United States; View of the Valley of the Missis- sippi; American Traveller ; Central Travel- ler; New Picture of Philadelphia; and Description of the Canals and Railroads of the United States. He died in New York City in 1858.

Tanner, James, attorney; born in Pichmondville, N. Y., April 4, 1844; re- ceived a common school education; en- listed as a private in the 87th New York Volunteers in 1861 ; was promoted cor- poral ; took part in the second battle of Bull Run, and there lost both legs. He returned to his native State in 1866; studied law; was appointed to a post in the New York Custom-house; became deputy collector under General Arthur; was tax collector of Brooklyn in 1877-85; and was appointed United States Com-

6

missioner of Pensions in 1889. On resign- ing this office he became a pension attor- ney.

Tanner, John, captive; born in Ken- tucky about 1780. His father laid out a farm at the mouth of the Big Miami River, O. When John was six years old he was captured by an Indian, and after two years' detention was sold to Net-no- kwa, an Ottawa Indian. He lived in captivity for thirty years, becoming so thoroughly accustomed to Indian life that he forgot his own language. He engaged in warlike expeditions and married Mis- kwa-bun-o-kwa ( " the Red Sky of the Morning " ) . Subsequently he went to De- troit, where he met his brother and visit- ed his family. He was then employed as an interpreter. He was the author of a Narrative of the Captivity and Ad- ventures of John Tanner during Thirty Years' Residence among the Indians. He died in 1847.

Tanoan Indians, a family of North American Indians that were widely scat- tered in the middle of the sixteenth cen- tury, and were divided into several groups which received distinct names from the Spanish discoverers and conquerors. They occupied nearly all of the valley of the Rio Grande del Norte, a stretch of country approximately 230 miles long by an extreme width of 100 miles, and ex- tending within forty miles of New Mexico to within 120 miles of Mexico. The Pueblo of Isleta, in New Mexico, contains the largest population, about 1,000.

Taos. See Tanoan Indians.

Tappan, a village of New York, 24 miles north of New York City, and 1% miles west of the Hudson River. Here, on Oct. 2, 1780, Maj. John Andre (q. v.) was hanged as a British spy.

Tappan, Arthur, philanthropist; born in Northampton, Mass., May 22, 1786; re- ceived a common school education; es- tablished himself in business in Portland, Me., and subsequently in Montreal, Can- ada, where he remained until the begin- ning of the War of 1812. He was the founder of Oberlin College, and erected Tappan Hall there; endowed Lane Theo- logical Seminary in Cincinnati; estab- lished a professorship at Auburn Theo- logical Seminary; was one of the found- ers of the American Tract Society; and

TAPP AN— TARIFF

with his brother established the New York Journal of Commerce in 1828 and The Emancipator in 1833. He was the first president of the American Anti - slavery- Society, to which he contributed $1,000 a month for several years, but withdrew in 1S40 on account of the aggressive spirit manifested by many members towards the churches and the Union; and during his later years was connected with a mercan- tile agency which his brother Lewis es- tablished. He died in New Haven, Conn., July 23, 1865.

Tappan, Lewis, merchant; brother of Arthur Tappan; born in Northampton, Mass., May 23, 1788; received a common school education; established himself in business with his brother in 1814. Later he became interested in calico-print works and the manufacture of cotton; removed to New York in 1827, and with his brother engaged in the importing trade. In 1833 he became deeply interested in the anti-slavery movement, in consequence of which he and his brother at various times suffered personal violence. He was in- volved in the crisis of 1837, and soon after withdrew from the firm and established the first mercantile agency in the country. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 21, 1873.

Tarbox, Increase Niles, author; born in East Windsor, Conn., Feb. 11, 1815; graduated at Yale College in 1839; studied theology and became pastor of a Congre- gational church in Framingham, Mass., in 1844; later was made secretary of the American College and Education Society of Boston. His publications include The Curse, or the Position Occupied in History hy the Race of Ham; Life of Israel Put- nam, Major-General in the Continental Army : Sir Walter Raleigh and His Colony m America, etc. He died in West Newton, Mass., May 3, 1888.

Tariff. The tariff is a tax levied upon exports or (especially) imports. A duty was early collected by Moslem rulers at the Spanish port Tarifa, whence the modern name, on goods passing through the Strait of Gibraltar. The word as used in the United States was adopted from the English tariffs, which before the reign of Queen Elizabeth were prohibitory, and since used as a source of revenue. In the United States the tariff is for revenue

and protection; there are no prohibitory duties except on chiccory, shoddy, doctor- ed wines, and a few articles of like char- acter. Before the adoption of the United States Constitution most of the American colonies had systems of taxation on im- ports. The first acts of the Dutch West India Company with reference to the colony of New Netherlands provided for export and import duties, and specific rates were levied on furs and codfish by act of June 7, 1629. In 1661 the council of Virginia laid an import tax on rum and sugar, and forbade unloading them except at appointed ports. The government ot Massachusetts enacted a general import tax, November, 1668. Under the confed- eration, the Continental Congress made numerous unsuccessful attempts to induce the States to join in an import tax for the common treasury, only succeeding in securing, in 1786, an agreement from New York, granting to the United States cer- tain imposts, provided the other States did the same. A measure for taxing im- ports, " for the support of the government, for the discharge of debts of the United States, and the encouragement and protec- tion of manufactures," was introduced in the House of Representatives of the First Congress, by James Madison, April 8, 1789. From this dates tariff legislation in the United States.

Chronology.

Congress passes first tariff act, to con- tinue in force until June, 1796, combining specific duties on some articles and ad va- lorem on others, equivalent to an S^/g per cent, ad volorem rate, with drawback, eX' cept 1 per cent, of duties, on all articles exported within twelve months, except dis- tilled spirits other than brandy and geneva, signed by Washington

July 4, 1789

Act of Congress passed to regulate the collection of duties. Each collection dis- trict to lie within a State. Providing for collectors, deputy collectors, naval officers, surveyors, weighers, measurers, gaugers, and inspectors. Ad valorem duties to be estimated by adding 20 per cent, to the actual cost thereof if imported from the Cape of Good Hope or any place beyond, and 10 per cent, if from any other country. Duties to be paid in cash if under $50; if

TARIFF

over, might be secured by bond to run from 88 to 54, and the Senate by 25 to 7, and

four to twelve months, with 10 per cent, becomes a law April 27, 1816

discount for prompt payment Act passed deferring the time of reduc-

July 31, 1789 tion of tariff on woollens and oottons

Act laying duties on importations ex- until 1826, and raising the duty on bar

tended to Xorth Carolina, Feb. 8, and to iron from $9 to $15 per ton

Rhode Island June 14, 1790 April 20, 1818

Act of July 4, 1789, repealed, and new Eesolutions introduced in Congress for law enacted raising duties to equal an the abolition of drawbacks, and bills to 11 per cent, ad valorem rate shorten long credits on importations, to Aug. 10, 1790 tax auction sales of imports, and to col- Tariff rate raised to equal 131/^ per lect duties in cash debated, but fail to be- eent., by act of May 2, 1792 come laws 1819-22

Additional duties levied on imports. Auction system, by which foreigners

particularly tobacco, snuff, and refined shipped goods to the United States, under-

sugar, by acts of June 5-7, 1794 valuing them in the invoice, for which

Tariff on bro\ATi sugar, molasses, and the auctioneer gave bonds and immediately

tea increased March 3, 1797 sold for what they would bring, is rem-

Duty on salt increased from 12 to 20 edied by deterrent legislation, which be-

cents by act of July 8, 1797 gan in 1818 and concluded in act of

First elaborate act of Congress for tak- March 1, 1823

ing possession of arriving merchandise. Tariff bill with average rate of 37 per

and levying and collecting duties cent, duties, after a debate of ten weeks,

March 2, 1799 passes the House by vote of 107 to 102.

Additional duties imposed on wines. The Senate adds amendments which the

sugar, molasses, and such articles as have Hovise rejects. The difference is settled

paid 10 per cent May 13, 1800 by a committee of conference, and bill

Two and one-half per cent, ad valorem passes Senate by 25 to 22, approved

imposed on all importations in American May 22, 1824

vessels, and 10 per cent, in foreign vessels, National convention, called by the Penn-

in addition to existing rates, for a fund sylvania Society for the Promotion of

to protect commerce and seamen against Manufactures and Mechanic Arts at Har-

the Barbary powers, commonly called the risburg, adopts resolutions in favor of

'* Mediterranean fund "... .March 27, 1804 more protection on iron, steel, glass, wool.

All tariff duties increased 100 per cent., woollens, and hemp July 30, 1827

and 10 per cent, additional on goods im- Tariff bill, based on recommendation of ported in foreign ships July 1, 1812 Harrisburg convention, introduced in Con- Double war duties continued until June gress Jan. 31, 1828

30, 1816, and after that day an additional New tariff, with a 41 per cent, rate,

duty of 42 per cent, until a new tariff favored by Daniel Webster, is debated

shall be formed Feb. 5, 1816 from March 4 to May 15; passed by

A. J. Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury, House, 109 to 91 ; Senate, 26 to 21, and

reports to Congress on the subject of a approved May 19, 1828

general tariff of increased duties [This became known as the " Tariff of

Feb. 13, 1816 Abominations." South Carolina protested

Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina, reports against it as unconstitutional, oppressive, a bill from the committee on ways and and unjust. North Carolina also pro- means to regulate duties on imports and tested, and Alabama and Georgia denied tonnage March 12, 1816 the power of Congress to lay duties for

Tariff bill opposed by Mr. Webster and protection.] most of the Eastern States, and by John Duties on coffee, cocoa, and tea re- Randolph, and supported by Messrs. Clay, duced by act of May 20; on molasses and

Calhoun, and Lowndes. Among other salt by act. .- May 29, 1830

provisions was one for the gradual reduc- Secretary ot the Treasury Ingham, in

tion of the tax on cotton and woollen his report, advocates " home " valuation

goods. Act passes the House by a vote of in place of " foreign," the current value

8

TARIFF

of goods in the United States to be the dutiable value Dec. 15, 1830

National free - trade convention meets in Philadelphia Sept. 30, 1831

National protection convention meets in New York Oct. 26, 1831

George McDuffie, representative from South Carolina, from committee on ways and means, reports a bill proposing ad valorem duties for revenue only

Feb. 8, 1832

John Quincy Adams reports a bill re- pealing the act of 1828, and reducing duties on coarse woollens, iron, etc.

May 23, 1832

Tariff bill retaining the protective feat- ures of the tariff of 1828, but reducing or abolishing many taxes, is reported. It reduced the tax on iron, increased that on woollens, made some raw wools free, and left cotton unchanged. Duties of less than $200 to be paid in cash without discount, law to take effect ]\Iarch 3, 1833; approved July 14, 1832

Representatives from South Carolina publish an address on the subject of the tariff, urging resistance. .. .July 15, 1832

Convention meets in Columbia, S. C, Nov. 19, and calls on the legislature to declare the tariff acts of 1824 and 1828 null and void in that State, and to pro- hibit the collection of duties there after Feb. 1, 1833; law passed.. Nov. 24, 1832

Secretary of the Treasury, in his report, recommends a reduction of duties to the requirements of revenue. .. .Dec. 5, 1832

President proclaims intention to en- force the laws Dec. 11, 1832

Mr. Verplanck, from the committee on ways and means, reports a bill providing for the reduction of duties in the course of two years to about one-half

Jan. 8, 1833

" Compromise Tariff bill " introduced by Mr. Clay Feb. 12, 1833

House strikes out Mr. Verplanck's bill and substitutes Mr. Clay's, which de- clares its object to be " to prevent the destruction of the political system, and to arrest civil war and restore peace and tranquillity to the nation." It provides for a gradual reduction in duties, and for "home valuation," all duties to be paid in cash. Passed by vote of 118 to 84 in the House, and 29 to 16 in the Senate, and approved March 2, 1833

"Force bill" or "Bloody bill," to en- force the collection of duties, passed by Congress March 2, 1833

Nullification acts repealed by South Carolina March 18, 1833

Home league formed to agitate for high duties 1841

A general tariff act, with average rate of duty about 33 per cent., and dropping the principle of " home valuation," is passed Sept. 11, 1841

Tariff law passed containing the much- controverted and litigated " similitude section" (sec. 20), imposing duties on non-enumerated articles which may be similar in material, quality, texture, or use to any enumerated article. .Aug. 30, 1842

Tariff bill passes the House by a vote of 114 to 95, and the Senate by the cast- ing vote of the Vice-President, George M. Dallas. Average rate of duty 251/2 per cent July 30, " 1846

Warehouse system established by act of Congress Aug. 6, 1846

Robert J. Walker introduces the sys- tem of private bonded warehouses, which is confirmed by act of Congress

March 28, 1854

Free-trade policy declared in the plat- form of the Democratic party at Cincin- nati June 6, 1856

Tariff act passed lowering the average duty to about 20 per cent. .March 3,- 1857

Republican Convention at Chicago adopts a protective-tariff platform

May 17, 1860

Tariff bill, raising the tariff of 1857 about one-third, introduced in the House by Mr. Morrill, passed and approved, March 2, 1861; goes into effect

April 1, 1861

Amended tariff act raising duties passed Aug. 5, 1861

Act passed increasing tariff on tea, coffee, and sugar Dec. 24, 1861

Act passed raising tariff duties tempo- rarily July 14, 1862

Act passed " to prevent and punish frauds upon the revenue," etc., which provides that all invoices of goods be made in triplicate, one to be given the person producing them, a second filed in the office of the consular officer nearest the place of shipment, and the third transmitted to the collector at the port of entry March 3, 1863

9

TARIFF

Joint resolution raising all duties 50 al duty of 10 per cent, on goods from

per cent, for sixty days, afterAA'ards ex- places west of the Cape of Good Hope),

tended to ninety days April 29, 1864 May 4, and amended Dec. 23, 1882

General revision of tariff, increasing Senate reports a tariff bill which is

duties passed June 30, 1864 called up for consideration, Jan. 10; House

Bill passed increasing tariff rates, bill reported by ways and means corn- March 3, 1865, and amended.. July 28, 1866 mittee, Jan. 16; both bills discussed anr"

Transportation in bond of goods des- amended for several weeks; a conference tined for Canada or Mexico, through the committee meets, Feb. 28; after some United States, provided for by act of resignations and reappointments of mem- July 28, 1866 bers, reports, March 2, accepted in the

Convention of woollen manufacturers Senate, 12.30 a.m., March .3, by 32 to

at Syracuse ask increased duties. They 31 votes, and in the House at 5.30 p.m.,

form an alliance with wool-growers, and March 3, by 152 to 116 votes, and signed

arrange a tariff which becomes a law by by the President before adjournment,

act of March 2, 1867 which was after midnight. .March 3, 1883

Duty on copper and copper ore in- A bill " to reduce import duties and

creased by act of Feb. 24, 1869 war-tariff taxes," introduced by Mr. Mor-

First law distinctly authorizing the ap- rison, is reported in the House, March

pointment of special agents of the treas- 11, and defeated by vote of 159 to 155

ury in the customs service, passed April 15, 1884

May 12, 1870 A bill to reduce tariff taxes, introduced

Following a general debate on an act by Mr. Morrison, is lost by vote of the

to reduce internal taxes, etc., a new tariff, House, 157 to 140 June 17, 1886

retaining most of the protective features. Mills bill, a measure " to reduce taxa-

becomes a law July 14, 1870 tion and simplify the laws in relation to

Duties removed from tea and coffee the collection of revenue," introduced in

after July 1, 1872, by act of.. May 1, 1872 the House by Eoger Q. Mills, of Texas,

General act passed reducing duties on chairman of the ways and means com-

imports and internal taxes. .June 6, 1872 mittee April 2, 1888

All provision moieties to informers re- Mills bill is taken up for discussion,

pealed, and the proceeds of all fines, pen- April 17, and debated until July 19, and

alties, and forfeitures to be paid into the passes the House by vote of 149 to 14

treasury, by act of June 22, 1874 July 21, 1888

Tariff law amended by act of Congress [Referred in the Senate to the finance

Feb. 8, 1875 committee, by whom a substitute was pre-

Salts and sulphate of quinine put on pared, and failed to become a law.]

the free-list July 1, 1879 A bill " to equalize duties upon imports

Act creating a tariff commission of nine and to reduce the revenue of the gov-