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THE BOOK OF

SER MARCO POLO

THE VENETIAN CONCERNING THE

KINGDOMS AND MARVELS OF

THE EAST

TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES, BY

COLONEL SIR HENRY YULE, R.E., C.B , K.C.S.I,

CORR. INST. FRANCE

THIRD EDITION, REVISED THROUGHOUT IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT DISCOVERIES BY HENRI CORDIER (OF PARIS)

PROFESSOR OF CHINESE HISTORY AT THEECOLE DES LANGUES ORIENTALES VIVANTES ; VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF PARIS ; MEMUER OF COUNCIL OF THE SOCI^TE ASIATIQUE ; HON. MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY AND OF THE REGIA DEPUTAZIONE VENETA DI STORIA PATRIA

WITH A MEMOIR OF HENRY YULE BY HIS DAUGHTER AMY FRANCES YULE, L.A.SOC. ANT. SCOT., ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES— Vol. I. WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.

1903

S(o(fi71

"AvSpa jxoi erveTre, Movcra, 7roAurpo:rov, os fidXa 7roXX.a IIAay^^ry

IToAAwi' 8' dv9pu)TrMV iSev d<TTea koI voov eyvw.

Odyssey, I.

" I AM BECOME A NAME ;

For ALWAYS roaming with a hungry heart Much have I seen and known ; cities of men, And manners, climates, councils, governments, Myself not least, but honoured of them all."

Tennyson.

A SEDER CI PON EM MO I VI AMBODUI

VOLTI A LeVANTE, OND' ERAVAM SALITI ;

CHk SUOLE A RIGUARDAR GIOVARE altrui."

Dante, Purgatory, IV.

& 370

/

Messer Marco Polo, with Messer Nicolo and Messer Waffeo, returned from xxvi years' sojourn in the Orient, is denied entrance to the Ca' Polo. (See Int p. 4.)

DEDICATION.

TO THE MEMORY OF SIR RODERICK I. MURCHISON,BART., K.C.B., G.C.St.A., G.C.St.S.

ETC. THE PERFECT FRIEND

WHO FIRST BROUGHT HENRY YULE AND JOHN MURRAY TOGETHER

(HE ENTERED INTO REST, OCTOBER 22ND, 1871,)

AND TO THAT OF HIS MUCH LOVED NIECE,

HARRIET ISABELLA MURCHISON,

WIFE OF KENNETH ROBERT MURCHISON, D.L., J. P.,

(SHE ENTERED INTO REST, AUGUST 9TH, 1902,)

UNDER WHOSE EVER HOSPITABLE ROOF MANY OF THE PROOF

SHEETS OF THIS EDITION WERE READ BY ME,

I DEDICATE THESE VOLUMES FROM

THE OLD MURCHISON HOME,

IN THANKFUL REMEMBRANCE OF ALL I OWE TO

THE ABIDING AFFECTION, SYMPATHY, AND EXAMPLE OF BOTH.

TARADALE, AMY FRANCES YULE.

ROSS-SHIRE, September nth, 1902.

SCOTLAND.

^ fr * "^

Ed e da noi si strano, Che quando ne ragiono r non trovo nessuno, Che I'abbia navicato, if * * i^ l.e parti del Levante, Lk dove sono tante Gemme di gran vakite

E di moha salute : E sono in quelle giro

Balsamo, e ambra, e tiro, E lo pepe, e lo legno Aloe, ch' e si degno, E spigo, e cardamomo,

Giengiovo, e cennamomo : E altre molte spezie,

Ciascuna in sua spezie, E migliore, e piu fina, E Sana in medicina. Appresso in questo loco

Mise in assetto loco Li tigri, e li grifoni,

Leofanti, e leoni Cammelli, e dragomene,

Badalischi, e gene, E pantere, e castoro,

Le formiche dell' oro, E tanti altri animali,

Ch' io non so ben dir quaii, Che son si divisati, E si dissomighati Di corpo e di fazione,

Di si fera ragione, E di si strana taglia,

Ch'io non credo san faglia, Ch' alcun uomo vivente

Potesse veramente Per lingua, o per scritture

Recitar le figure Delle bestie, e gli uccelli

-From // Tesoretto di Ser Brunetto Latini (circa mdcclx.)- {^Florence, 1824, pp. 83 seqq^j

CONTENTS OF VOL. I.

PAGE

Dedication iii

Note by Miss Yule v

Preface to Third Edition vii

Preface to Second Edition xi

Original Preface . . . xxi

Original Dedication xxv

Memoir of Sir Henry Yule by Amy Frances Yule,

L.A.Soc. Ant. Scot xxvii

A Bibliography of Sir Henry Yule's Writings . . . Ixxv

Synopsis of Contents Ixxxiii

Explanatory List of Illustrations to vol. i xcvii

Introductory Notices 1-144

The Book of Marco Polo.

NOTE BY MISS YULE

I DESIRE to take this opportunity of recording my grateful sense of the unsparing labour, learning, and devotion, with which my father's valued friend, Professor Henri Cordier, has performed the difficult and delicate task which I entrusted to his loyal friendship.

Apart from Professor Cordier's very special qualifications for the work, I feel sure that no other Editor could have been more entirely acceptable to my father. I can give him no higher praise than to say that he has laboured in Yule's own spirit.

The slight Memoir which I have contributed (for which I accept all responsibility), attempts no more than a rough sketch of my father's character and career, but it will, I hope, serve to recall pleasantly his remarkable individuality to the few remaining who knew him in his primiC, whilst it may also afford some idea of the man; and his work and environment, to those who had not that advantao^e.

VI NOTE BY MISS YULE

No one can be more conscious than myself of its many shortcomings, which I will not attempt to excuse. I can, however, honestly say that these have not been due to negligence, but are rather the blemishes almost inseparable from the fulfilment under the gloom of bereavement and amidst the pressure of other duties, of a task undertaken in more favourable circumstances.

Nevertheless, in spite of all defects, I believe this sketch to be such a record as my father would himself have approved, and I know also that he would have chosen my hand to write it.

In conclusion, I may note that the first edition of this work was dedicated to that very noble lady, the Queen (then Crown Princess) Margherita of Italy. In the second edition the Dedication was reproduced within brackets (as also the original preface), but net renewed. That precedent is again followed.

I have, therefore, felt at liberty to associate the present edition of my father's work with the Name MURCHISON, which for more than a generation was the name most generally representative of British Science in Foreign Lands, as of Foreign Science in Britain.

A. F. YULE.

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.

Little did I think, some thirty years ago, when I received a copy of the first edition of this grand work, that I should be one day entrusted with the difficult but glorious task of supervising the third edition. When the first edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo reached "Far Cathay," it created quite a stir in the small circle of the learned foreigners, who then resided there, and became a starting-point for many researches, of which the results have been made use of partly in the second edition, and partly in the present. The Archimandrite Palladius and Dr. E. Bretschneider, at Peking, Alex. Wylie, at Shang-hai friends of mine who have, alas ! passed away, with the exception of the Right Rev. Bishop G. E. Moule, of Hang-chau, the only survivor of this little group of hard-working scholars, were the first to explore the Chinese sources of information which were to yield a rich harvest into their hands.

When I returned home from China in 1876, I was introduced to Colonel Henry Yule, at the India Office, by our common friend. Dr. Reinhold Rost, and from that time we met frequently and kept up a correspondence which terminated only with the life of the great geographer, whose friend I had become. A new edition of the travels of Friar Odoric of Pordenone,

Vlll PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION

our "mutual friend," in which Yule had taken the greatest interest, was dedicated by me to his memory. I knew that Yule contemplated a third edition of his Marco Polo, and all will regret that time was not allowed to him to complete this labour of love, to see it published. If the duty of bringing out the new edition of Mat'co Polo has fallen on one who considers himself but an unworthy successor of the first illustrious commentator, it is fair to add that the work could not have been entrusted to a more respectful disciple. Many of our tastes were similar ; we had the same desire to seek the truth, the same earnest wish to be exact, perhaps the same sense of humour, and, what is necessary when writing on Marco Polo, certainly the same love for Venice and its history. Not only am I, with the late Charles Schefer, the founder and the editor of the Rectieil de Voyages et de Documents pour servir a l Histoire de la Geographic depuis le XIII^ jusquct la fin du XVI ^ Steele, but I am also the successor, at the Ecole des langues Orientales Vivantes, of G. Pauthier, whose book on the Venetian Traveller is still valuable, so the mantle of the last two editors fell upon my shoulders.

I therefore, gladly and thankfully, accepted Miss Amy Frances Yule's kind proposal to undertake the editorship of the third edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo, and I wish to express here my gratitude to her for the great honour she has thus done me.*

Unfortunately for his successor, Sir Henry Yule, evidently trusting to his own good memory, left but few notes. These are contained in an inter- leaved copy obligingly placed at my disposal by Miss Vule, but I luckily found assistance from various other

Miss Yule has written the Memoir of her father and the new Dedication.

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION IX

quarters. The following works have proved of the greatest assistance to me : The articles of General HouTUM-ScHiNDLER in ih& J 02crna I of the Royal Asiatic Society, and the excellent books of Lord Curzon and of Major P. Molesworth Sykes on Persia, M. Grenard's account of DuTREUiLde Rhins' Mission to Central Asia, Bretschneider's and Palladius' remarkable papers on Mediaeval Travellers and Geography, and above all, the valuable books of the Hon. W. W. Rockhill on Tibet and Rubruck, to which the distinguished diplomatist, traveller, and scholar kindly added a list of notes of the greatest importance to me, for which I offer him my hearty thanks.

My thanks are also due to H.H. Prince Roland Bonaparte, who kindly gave me permission to reproduce some of the plates of his Recueil de Documents de lEpoque Mongole, to M. Leopold Delisle, the learned Principal Librarian of the Bibliotheque Nationale, who gave me the opportunity to study the inventory made after the death of the Doge Marino Faliero, to the Count de Semalle, formerly French Charge d'Affaires at Peking, who gave me for reproduction a number of photographs from his valuable personal collection, and last, not least, my old friend Comm. Nicol6 Barozzi, who continued to lend me the assistance which he had formerly rendered to Sir Henry Yule at Venice.

Since the last edition was published, more than twenty-five years ago, Persia has been more thoroughly studied ; new routes have been explored in Central Asia, Karakorum has been fully described, and Western and South-Western China have been opened up to our knowledge in many directions. The results of these investigations form the main features of this new edition of Marco Polo. I have suppressed hardly any of Sir

X

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION

Henry Yule's notes and altered but few, doing so only when the light of recent information has proved him to be in error, but I have supplemented them by what, I hope, will be found useful, new information.*

Before I take leave of the kind reader, I wish to thank sincerely Mr. John Murray for the courtesy and the care he has displayed while this edition was going through the press.

HENRI CORDIER.

Paris, ist of October, 1902.

* Paragraphs which have been altered are marked thus+ ; my own additions are placed between brackets [ ]. H. C.

'■ Sio\xi strike \]onx §^x\t3 y^tt jdlj) ^taiinn-s, Sox. toe tic rrrmc ixiia vt xixtict gSolic" ....

—The Faerie Queene, I. xii. 42.

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION,

The unexpected amount of favour bestowed on the former edition of this Work has been a great en- couragement to the Editor in preparing this second one.

Not a few of the kind friends and correspondents who lent their aid before have continued it to the present revision. The contributions of Mr. A, Wylie of Shang-hai, whether as regards the amount of labour which they must have cost him, or the value of the result, demand above all others a grateful record here. Nor can I omit to name again with hearty acknowledg- ment Signor Comm. G. Berchet of Venice, the Rev. Dr. Caldwell, Colonel (now Major-General) R. Maclagan, R.E., Mr. D. H anbury, F.R.S., Mr. Edward Thomas, F.R.S. (Corresponding Member of the Institute), and Mr. R. H. Major.

But besides these old names, not a few new ones claim my thanks.

The Baron F. von Richthofen, now President of the Geographical Society of Berlin, a traveller who not only has trodden many hundreds of miles in the footsteps of our Marco, but has perhaps travelled over more of the Interior of China than Marco ever did, and who carried to that survey high scientific accomplish-

Xll PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

ments of which the Venetian had not even a rudimentary conception, has spontaneously opened his bountiful stores of new knowledge in my behalf, Mr. Ney Elias, who in 1872 traversed and mapped a line of upwards of 2000 miles through the almost unknown tracts of Western Mongolia, from the Gate in the Great Wall at Kalo-han to the Russian frontier in the Altai, has done likewise.* To the Rev. G. Moule, of the Church Mission at Hang-chau, I owe a mass of interesting matter regarding that once great and splendid city, the KiNSAY of our Traveller, which has enabled me, I trust, to effect great improvement both in the Notes and in the Map, which illustrate that subject. And to the Rev. Carstairs Douglas, LL.D., of the English Presbyterian Mission at Amoy, I am scarcely less indebted. The learned Professor Bruun, of Odessa, whom I ' never have seen, and have little likelihood of ever seeing in this world, has aided me with zeal and cordiality like that of old friendship. To Mr. Arthur Burnell, Ph.D., of the Madras Civil Service, I am grateful for many valuable notes bearing on these and other geographical studies, and particularly for his generous communication of the drawing and photo- graph of the ancient Cross at. St. Thomas's Mount, long before any publication of that subject was made

* It would be ingratitude if this Preface contained no acknowledgment of the medals awarded to the writer, mainly for this work, by the Royal Geographical Society, and by the Geographical: Society of Italy, the former under the Presidence of Sir Henry Rawlinson, the latter under that of the Commendatore C. Negri. Strongly as I feel the too generous appreciation of these labours implied in such awards, I confess to have been yet more deeply touched and gratified by practical evidence of the approval of the two distinguished Travellers mentioned above ; as shown by Baron von Richthofen in his spontaneous proposal to ]~>ublish a German version of the book under his own immediate supervision (a project in abeyance, owing to circumstances beyond his or my control) ; by Mr. Ney Elias in the fact of his having carried these ponderous volumes with him on his solitary journey across the Mongolian wilds !

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION Xlll

on his own account. My brother officer, Major Oliver St. John, R.E., has favoured me with a variety of interesting remarks regarding the Persian chapters, and has assisted me with new data, very materially correcting the Itinerary Map in Kerman.

Mr. Blochmann of the Calcutta Madrasa, Sir Douglas Forsyth, C.B., lately Envoy to Kashgar, M. de Mas Latrie, the Historian of Cyprus, Mr. Arthur Grote, Mr. Eugene Schuyler of the U.S. Legation at St. Petersburg, Dr. Bushell and Mr. W. F. Mayers, of H.M.'s Legation at Peking, Mr. G. Phillips of Fuchau, Madame Olga Fedtchenko, the widow of a great traveller too early lost to the world, Colonel Keatinge, V.C, C.S.L, Major-General Keyes, C.B., Dr. George Birdwood, Mr. Burgess, of Bombay, my old and valued friend Colonel W. H. Greathed, C.B., and the Master of Mediaeval Geography, M. D'Avezac himself, with others besides, have kindly lent assistance of one kind or another, several of them spontaneously, and the rest in prompt answer to my requests.

Having always attached much importance to the matter of illustrations,* I feel greatly indebted to the liberal action of Mr. Murray in enabling me largely to increase their number in this edition. Though many are original, we have also borrowed a good many;f a proceeding which seems to me entirely unobjectionable when the engravings are truly illustrative of the text, and not hackneyed.

I reo^ret the auo-mented bulk of the volumes. There

* I am grateful to Mr. de KhanikofF for his especial recognition of these in a kindly review of the first edition in the Academy.

t Especially from Lieutenant Garnier's book, mentioned further on ; the only existing source of illustration for many chapters of Polo,

Xiv PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

has been some excision, but the additions visibly and palpably preponderate. The truth is that since the completion of the first edition, just four years ago, laree additions have been made to the stock of our

o

knowledge bearing on the subjects of this Book ; and how these additions have continued to come in up to the last moment, may be seen in Appendix L,* which has had to undergo repeated interpolation after being put in type. Karakorum, for a brief space the seat of the widest empire the world has known, has been visited; the ruins of Shang-tu, the "Xanadu of Cublay Khan," have been explored ; Pamir and Tangut have been penetrated from side to side ; the famous mountain Road of Shen-si has been traversed and described ; the mysterious Caindu has been unveiled ; the publi- cation of my lamented friend Lieutenant Garnier's great work on the French Exploration of Indo-China has provided a mass of illustration of that Yun-nan for which but the other day Marco Polo was well-nigh the most recent authority. Nay, the last two years have thrown a promise of light even on what seemed the wildest of Marco's stories, and the bones of a veritable Rue from New Zealand lie on the table of Professor Owen's Cabinet !

M. Vivien de St. Martin, during the interval of which we have been speaking, has published a History of Geography. In treating of Marco Polo, he alludes to the first edition of this work, most evidently with no intention of disparagement, but speaks of it as merely a revision of Marsden's Book. The last thing I should allow myself to do would be to apply to a

* [Merged into the notes of the present edition. H. C]

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION XV

Geographer, whose works I hold in so much esteem, the disrespectful definition which the adage quoted in my former Preface * gives of the vir qui docet quod non sapit ; but I feel bound to say that on this occasion M. Vivien de St. Martin has permitted himself to pronounce on a matter with which he had not made himself acquainted ; for the perusal of the very first lines of the Preface (I will say nothing of the Book) would have shown him that such a notion was utterly unfounded.

In concluding these "forewords" I am probably taking leave of Marco Polo,f the companion of many pleasant and some laborious hours, whilst I have been contemplating with him ['' volti a leva7tte") that Orient in which I also had spent years not a few.

And as the writer lingered over this conclusion, his thoughts wandered back in reverie to those many venerable libraries in which he had formerly made search for mediaeval copies of the Traveller's story ; and it seemed to him as if he sate in a recess of one of these with a manuscript before him which had never till then been examined with any care, and which he found with delight to contain passages that appear in no version of the Book hitherto known. It was written in clear Gothic text, and in the Old French tongue of the early 14th century. Was it possible that he had lighted on the long-

* See page xxix.

t Writing in Italy, perhaps I ouglit to write, according to too prevalent modern Italian custom, Polo Marco. I have already seeri, and in the work of a writer of reputation, the Alexandrian geographer styled Tolomeo Claudia! and if this pre- posterous fashion should continue to spread, we shall in time have Tasso Torquato, Jo7ison Ben, Africa explored by Park Muiigo, Asia conquered by Lane Tamer, Copperfield David by Dickens Chai-les, Homer Englished by Pope Alexander, and the Roman history done into French from the original oi Live Tite!

XVi PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

lost original of Ramusio's Version ? No ; it proved to be different. Instead of the tedious story of the northern wars, which occupies much of our Fourth Book, there were passages occurring in the later history of Ser Marco, some years after his release from the Genoese captivity. They appeared to contain strange anachronisms cer- tainly ; but we have often had occasion to remark on puzzles in the chronology of Marco's story ! * And in some respects they tended to justify our intimated suspicion that he was a man of deeper feelings and wider symipathies than the book of Rusticiano had allowed to appear.t Perhaps this time the Traveller had found an amanuensis whose faculties had not been stiffened by fifteen years of Malapaga ? J One of the most important passages ran thus :

'"'' Bien est voirs que, apres ce que Messires Marc Pol avoit pris fame et si estoit demoure plusours ans de sa vie a Venysse, il avint que mourut Messires Mafes qui oncies Monseignour Marc estoit : {et moterut ausi ses graiiz chiens mastins qti'avoit amenei dou Catai,% et qui avoit non Bayan pour Tamour au bon chievetain Bayan Cent-iex) ; adonc n'avoit oncques puis Messires Marc nullui, fors son esclave Piere le Tartar, avecques lequel pouvoit pc?ire soulas a s'entretenir de ses voiages et des choses dou Leva7it. Car la gent de Venysse si avoit de grant piesce moult aniiy pris des loncs contes Monseignour Marc ; et quand ledit Messires Marc issoit de Vuys sa meson ou Sai7i Grisostonie, souloient li petit marmot es votes dariere-li courir en crya?tt Messer Marco Milion ! cont' a nu un busion !• qtie veult dire en Franqois ''Messires Marcs des millions di-nous un de vos gros mensongesj En oultre, la Dame Donate fame aiiuyouse estoit, et de trop estroit esprit, et plainne de cozivoitise.W Ansi avint que Messires Marc desiroit es voiages rantrer durement.

" Si se partist de Venisse et chevaucha aux parties doccide7it. Et demoura mainz jours es contrees de Provence et de France et puys fist passaige aux Ysles de la tremo7itaingne et ^e7i retour7ta par la Magne, si co77i77ie vous orrez cy-apres. Et fist-il escripre S07i voiage atout les dcvise77ients Ics C07itreesj 7nes de la France ny parloit 7/iie gra7iti7te7it pour ce que mai7ttes genz la scevent aperte77ie7it. Et pour ce e7i lai7'072s ata7it, et co7)i77ie7tcerons d'autres choses, assavoir, de Bretaingne LA GRANT.

* Introduction p. 24, and passim in the notes. t Ibid. , p. 112.

+ See Introduction, pp. ji, 57. § See Title of present volume.

II Which quite agrees with the story of the document quoted at p. 77 of Introduction.

PREFACE to SECOND EDITION xvii

Cu icbusf brru romume ic ^vetniugite I;t grant.

" Et sac/lies que qiiand Fen se part de Gales, et Peii nage XX ou XXX viilles ci trop grant mesaise, si treuve ten line grandisme Ysle qui s'apelle Bretaingne la Grant. Elle est d tine grant roy7ie et ii en fait treuage d niilluy. Et ensevelissent lor mors^ et out inonnoye de chartres et dJor et d'argent^ et arde7it pierres noyres, et vivent de marchandises et d'ars, et ont toiites choses de vivre en grant habondance mats no7t pas d bon marchie. Et dest utte Ysle de trop grant richesce, et li inarinier de celle partie dient que dest li plus riches royaiwies qui soit ou mo7tde, et quHl y a li inieudre mariitier dou vi07ide et li mieudre coursier et li inieudre chevalier {ains ne chevauchent mais lone com Frattgois). Ausi ont-il trop bons homes d'armes et vaillans dure- nient {bien que maiftt 7iy ait), et les dames et dafiioseles boftftes et loialles, et belles com lys soiief florant. Et qtioi vous en diroie-je ? II y a citez et chasteau assez, et ta?it de marcheanz et si riches qui font veinr tant d^avoir-de- poiz et de toiite espece de marchandise qiiil liest hons qui la verite en sceust dire. Font veiiir d'Ynde et d'autres pa7^ties colon a gi^aiit pla7tte\ etfont venir soye de Manzi et de Bangala, et foftt venir laine des ysles de la Mer Occeane et de toutes parties. Et si labourent maintz bouquerans et touailles et aiitres draps de colon et de laine et de soye. Encores sachies que ont v allies deader assez, et si e?t labourent trop soubtivement de tous hernois de chevalier, et de toutes choses besoignables d ostj ce sont espees et glaive et esperon et heainne et haches, et toute espece darteillerie et de coutelerie, et eii font grant gaaigfte et grant marchandise. Et en font si grant habondance que tout li mondes en y piiet avoir et d bon marchie.

(Encores tg Irbise liou igt rrtraume, ti ic cc xiu'en btst JEfssfes glares.

" Et sachies que tient icelle Royne la seigneurie de /'Ynde majeure et de Mutfili et de Bangala, et dhine moitie de Mien. Et moult est saige et noble dame et pourveans, si que est elle amee de chascun. Et. avoit jadis mari ; et depuys quHl mourut bien XI v ans avoit j adoiic la royne sa fame Vama tant que oncques puis ne se voult marier a nulliii, pour V amour le prince so7i baron, angois moult maine quoye vie. Et tient son royaume ausi bien ou viiex que oncques le tindreiit li roy si aioul. Mes ores eii ce royaume li roy liont guieres pooir, ains la poissance commence a ti^espasser d la menue gent. Et distrent aucun marinier de celes parties d Monseignour Marc que hui-et-le jour li royaumes soit auques abastardi come je vous dii^oy. Car bien est voi}-^ que ci-arrieres estoit ciz pueple de Bretaingne la Grant bonne et grajtz et loialle gent qui servoit Diex moult volofztiers selonc lor usaigej et tuit li labour qii'il labciiroient et portoieiit a vendre estoient honnestement laboure, et dou greig7ieur V alliance, et chose pardurable ; et se vendoient a jouste pris sanz barguignier. Eft tant que se aucuns labours portoit I'estanpille Bretaingne la Grant destoit regardei com pleges de bonfie estoffe. Mes oreitdroit li labours n^est mie toiisjourz si boftsj et quaizd ten achate pour un qtiintal pesant de toiles de colon, adojic, par trop souvent, si treuve Pen de chascun C pois de colon, bien xxx ou XL pois de piastre de gifs, ou de blanc VOL. I. b

XVm PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

d'Espaigne, on de choses semblables. Et se Veil achate de camiiieloz on de tireteinne ou d^ autre dras de laine^ cist ne dicrenf fiiie, ains sontplaitt d''einpoise, on de glu et de balieures.

" Et bien quHl est voirs que chascjins hons egalement doit de son cars servir son seigneur ou sa commune^ pour alcr e?t ost en te?is de besoing7te ; et bie?i que trestuit li autre royaume cPoccident tieingtzent ce pour 07'denajtce, ciz pueple de Bretaingne la Gr^ca.'i 7ien veult nulleme^it^ ains sidient: ' Veez-la: 7iavons nous pas la l^l^aiche pour fosse' de nostre pourpi'is^ et pourquoy 7ious pe7ie7'07is-7ious pour 7ious /aire ho7nes da7'77ies, e7t lessiant 7ios gaaig7ies et 710S soulaz ? Cela lairo7is aus soudaiers.^ Or li preudhonie e7tt7-e eulx 7noult ' sceve7tt biefi C077i tiex pa7'oles so7tt nyaisesj 7nes si OTit paoicr de lour en di7-e la ve7'ite pour ce que cuide7it desplaire as bourjois et a la 7ne7iue ge7it.

" Or je vans di sa7iz faille que, ■qua7td Messires Marcs Pols sceust ces choses, 77ioult e7i ot pitie de cestui pueple, et il li vi/tt a re7ne7nbra7ice ce que ave7tu estoit, ou te7ts Monseignour Nicolas et Monseignour Mafe, a Pore qua7id Alau, frere char7iel dou Gra7it Sire Cublay, ala e7i ost seur Baudas, et p7i7itle Calife et sa 7naistre cite, atout so7t vaste tresor d^or et d'' argent, et Va7nh'e parolle que dist ledit Alau au Calife, co7n Va escripte li Maistres Rusticiens ou chief de cestui livre*

'■'■ Car sachies tout voire7ne7it que M.Q.'sSix^'S, Marc 7noult se deleitoit a faire appert c077ibien sont pareilles au fo7tt les co7idicio7is des diverses 7'egio7is dou 77ionde, et soloit-il clorre so7t discours si disant e7i so7i language de Venisse : ' Sto mondo xe fato tondo, C077i uzoit dire 77ies 07icles Mafes.'

" Ore vous lairo7ts d, C07iter de ceste tnatiere et retourtio'Otis a parler de la Loy des ge7iz de Bretaingne la Grant.

Cj) iictbi titQ itbcrsrs txtx\xtz& tie ia xjcnt grEtatn^ne la drant rt tic tz xju'w ntiixrit Jttcssir^s ^^tarc0.

" // est voi7's que li ptceples est Crestie7is, 7nes 7i07i pour le plus selo7tc la foy de VApostoille Ro7n7Jiai7i, ai7is tie7i72e7it le e7i 7nautale7it assez. Seule- ine7it il y e7i a aiccun qui so7tt feoil du dit Apostoille et e7ico7'e plus for77ie7it que li 7tostre przidhome de Venisse. Car qua7id dit li Papes : ' Telle ou telle chose est 7ioyre^ toicte ladite ge7it si e7t jure : ' Noyre est co7n poivre! Et puis se dira li Papes de la dite chose : ' Elle est bla7iche,' si enjure7'a toute ladite ge7tt : '■II est voirs qtt'elle est bla7tchej bla7iche est co77t 7toifs.' Et dist Messires Marc Pol : ' Nous 7iavo7is 7tulle77ie7it tant de foy a Venyse, 7ie li prudho77ie de Florence 7i07i plus, co7n re7i puet savoir bie7t aperte77ie7tt dou livre Mo7isei^7iour Dantes Aldiguiere, que fay co7ig7ieic a Padoe le 77ieis77ie a7i que Messires Thibault de Cepoy a Venisse estoit.\ Mes dest joustei7ie7it ce que fay veu autre foiz p7'es le G7'a7it Bacsi qui est co7n li Papes des Ydres.'

" E7icore y a ime autre 77ia7iiere de ge7itj ce so7it de celz qui s'appelle7it filsoufcsj \ et si il dise7it : ' S'il y a Diex tie7i scavo7is 7iul, nies il est voirs

* Vol. i. p. 64, and p. 67.

t I-e. 1306; see Introduction, pp. 68-6g.

X The form which Marco gives to this word was pvobably a reminiscence of the Oriental corruption /fl/Zs-2(/. It recalls to my mind a Hindu who was very fond of the word, and especially of applying it to certain of his fellow-servants. But as he used it, bara faihiif- "great philosopher" meant exactly the same as the modern slang '' Artful Dodger'' I

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION xix

quHl est tme certemtie courance des choses laquex court devers le bictt.' Et fist Messires Marcs ; '■ E7tcore la creance des Bacsi qui dysent que liy a ne Diex Eternel 7ie Juge des ho7/ies, ains il est une certelnne chose laquex s^apelle Kerma.' *

" Une autre foiz avint que disoit un des filsoufes a Monseignour Marc ; ' Diex liexiste mie jeusqti'ores, aingois il se fait desore7tdroit.' Et fist e7icore Messires Marcs : ' Veez-la U7ie autre foiz la crea7ice des ydres^ car die7it que li seuz Diex est icil ho7is qui par force de ses ve7'tuz et de so7i savoir ta7tt pour- chace que d^ho7/ie il se face Diex prese7^te77^e7^t. Et li Tartar rappele7tt Borcan. Tiex Diex Sagamoni Borcan estoit, dote quel pai'le li liv7'es Maist7'e Rusticien.'t

'■'' E7tcore 07it tme autre 77ia7iiere de filsoufes, et die7it-il: '■ II 7i^est 7uie 7te Diex ne Kerma ne coura7tce vers le bie7t, 7ie Provide7tce, ne Creerres, 7ie Sauvours, 7ie sai7itete ne pechies 77e conscie7tce de pechie, tie proyere 7ie respo7ise a proyere, il tiest nulle riens fors que trop 77iini7ne grain ou paillettes qui ont d, no7)i atosmes, et de tiex grai7is devie7it chose qui vive, et chose qui vive devie7it tme ce7-tei7i7ie creature qui de77ioure aic rivaige de la Mer : et ceste creature devie/it poisso7ts, et poisso7ts devient lezars, et lezars devie7it blay7^iaus, et blayriazis devient gat-77iai77i07zs, et gat-77iai77i07is devie7tt ho7ts sauvaiges qui 77ie7ijue char d'ho7nes, et ho7ts sauvaiges devie7it ho7is crestie7i'

'"'' Et dist Messires Marc: '' E7icore tme foiz, biaus si7'es, li Bacsi de Tebet et de Kescemir et li prestre de Seilan, qui si dient que Var77ie vivatit dole trespasser par tous cez cha7tges de vestetnetis j si co77i se t7'euve escript ou livre Maistre Rusticien que Sagamoni Borcan motirut iiij vi7tt et m] foiz et tousjourz 7'esuscita, et a chascime foiz dhme diverse 77ia7iiere de beste, et d, la derre7iiere foyz 77iourut ho7is et devi7tt diex, selonc ce qiHil die7it^\ Et fist eticore Messires Marc : ''A 77ioy pert-il tt^op est7-a7tge chose se juesques cl toutes les cre'ances des ydolastres delist decheoir ceste gra7itz et saige 7iatio7i. Ai7isi peue7it jouer Misi7'e li filsoufe atotit lour propre per te, tnes a Pore quand tiex fa7itaisies se 7'espa7idero7it es joe7ies bacheliers et pa7'77iy la 77ie7nie ge7it, celz ave7^07it pour toute Loy manliucimtts t\ Jbibitnius, tvx^ txdwx moricmut ; et trop isnelle77ie7it r e7i 7'acco77ie7icera la desce7ite de Veschiele, et d^ho7/ie C7'estie7i devie7tdra hons sauvaiges, et d^ho7ne sauvaige gat-77tai77i07ts, et de gat-t/tai- ition blayriatis.' Et fist encores Messires Marc : ' Mai7ttes contrees et pro- vinces et ysles et citez je Marc Pol ay veues et de 7/iaintes ge7tz de maintes 77ia7iieres ay les co7idicio7iz co7igneues, et je croy bie7i que il est plus assez dede7is Ptmivers que ce que li 7iostre prest7-e 7iy S07tge7tt. Et puet bie7i esi7'e, biaus sires, que li 77io7ides 71! a estes crees a tous poittz C077Z 7ious a'eie7is, ai7is dhme sorte encore plus 7ne7'veillouse. Mes cil 7^ a77te7tuise 7iulle77ie7it 7tostre petisee de Diex et de sa 77iajeste, ai7is la fait grei7tgnour. Et co7itree 71^ ay veue ou Da77ie Diex 7ie 77ia7iifeste aperte7iie7it les gra7i3 euvres de sa tout-poissa7ite saigesse ; ge7it tHay co7ig7ieue esquiex 7ie se fait sentir li fardels de pechie, et la besoi7tgne de Phisicie7t des 77taladies de l'ar7ne tiex co77i est 7iost7'e Seig7iours Ihesus Crist, Be7ii soyt so7i Non. Pensez do7icques a eel qu^a dit uns de ses

* See for the explanation of Karma, " the power that controls the universe," in the doctrine of atheistic Buddhism, Hardy's Eastern Monachis?n, p. 5. t Vol. ii. p. 316 (see also i. 348). X Vol. ii. pp. 318-319.

VOL. I. -_, b 2

XX PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

Aj)osfres : ^olxit tsst:^xubenUs n:^xx'h bosmdi^^fsos ; et uns metres: ^ttortbim TOuIti psfuio-prophctae rximnt ; et uns aiitres : ^xiob b^ntcnt in nobtssimis itchus iUttS0ixs . . . iiantcs, Wax ist ^jromissixr? et encores ans parolles que dist li Signours meistnes: 1iii££rgcr xxt lumen quxib in \t £$t tciubrai sint.)

Comment ^Usstv^s ^Inrcs sc pttrttet be I'jiislc be ^rj^taingne zi b^ la pvjjjiEVC

XjUC fist.

'•'• Et pourquoy vous enferoie-je lone conte? Si prmt nef Messires Marcs et se partist eji. nageant vers la terre ferme. Or Messires Marc Pol moult ama eel roiaunie de Bretaingne la grant pour son viex reno7i et s'' a7icien7te fraftchise^ etpour sa saige et bonne Royne {que Diex gart\ et pour les inainz hollies de vazllattce et bons cJiaceours et les maintes bonnes et honnestes dames qui y estoient. Et sachies tout voirement que en estant delez le bort la nef, et en esgardant aus roches blaiiches que I' en par dariere-li lessoit, Messires Marc prieoit Diex, et disoit-il : ' Ha Sires Diex ay merci de cestuy vieix et noble royaumej fay-en pardurable forteresse de liberie et de joustice, et garde-le de tout meschief de dedens et de dehors; donne a sa gent droit esprit pou? 7ie pas Diex guej-royer de ses dons, 7ie de richesce 77e de savoirj et co7iforte- les fermei7ient e7i tafoy ' . . ."

A loud Amen seemed to peal from without, and the awakened reader started to his feet. And lo ! it was the thunder of the winter-storm crashing among the many- tinted crags of Monte Pellegrino, with the wind raging as it knows how to rage here in sight of the Isles of ^olus, and the rain dashing on the glass as ruthlessly as it well could have done, if, instead of ^olic Isles and many-tinted crags, the window had fronted a dearer shore beneath a northern sky, and looked across the grey Firth to the rain-blurred outline of the Lomond Hills.

But I end, saying to Messer Marco's prayer, Amen.

Palermo, ;^ist Decei/iber, 1874.

ORIGINAL PREFACE.

The amount of appropriate material, and of acquaintance with the mediaeval geography of some parts of Asia, which was acquired during the compilation of a work of kindred character for the Hakluyt Society,* could hardly fail to suofeest as a fresh labour in the same field the preparation of a new English edition of Marco Polo. Indeed one kindly critic (in the Bxa7mner) laid it upon the writer as a duty to undertake that task.

Though at least one respectable English edition has appeared since Marsden's,! the latter has continued to be the standard edition, and maintains not only its reputation but its market value. It is indeed the work of a sagacious, learned, and right-minded man, which can never be spoken of otherwise than with respect. But since Marsden published his quarto (1818) vast stores of new know- ledge have become available in elucidation both of the contents of Marco Polo's book and of its literary history. The works of writers such as Klaproth, Abel Remusat, DAvezac, Reinaud, Ouatremere, Julien, 1. J. Schmidt, Gildemeister, Ritter, Hammer-Purgstall, Erdmann, D'Ohsson, Defremery, Elliot, Erskine, and many more, w^hich throw light directly or incidentally on Marco Polo, have, for the most part, appeared since then. Nor, as regards the literary history of the book, were any just views possible at a time when what may be called the Fontal MSS. (in French) were unpublished and unexamined.

Besides the works which have thus occasionally or inci-

* Cathay and The Way Thither, being a Collection of Minor Medieval Notices of China. London, 1866. The necessities of the case have required the repetition in the present work of the substance of some notes already printed (but hardly published) in the other.

t Viz. Mr. Hugh Murray's. I mean no disrespect to Mr. T. Wright's edition, but it is, and professes to be, scarcely other than a reproduction of Marsden's, with abridg- ment of his notes.

XXll ORIGINAL PREFACE

dentally thrown light upon the Traveller's book, various editions of the book itself have since Marsden's time been published in foreign countries, accompanied by comments of more or less value. All have contributed somethinsf to the illustration of the book or its history ; the last and most learned of the editors, M. Pauthier, has so contri- buted in large measure. I had occasion some years ago* to speak freely my opinion of the merits and demerits of M. Pauthier's work ; and to the latter at least I have no desire to recur here.

Another of his critics, a much more accomplished as well as more favourable one,t seems to intimate the opinion that there would scarcely be room in future for new commentaries. Something of the kind was said of Marsden's at the time of its publication. I imagine, however, that whilst our libraries endure the Iliad will continue to find new translators, and Marco Polo though one hopes not so plentifully new editors.

The justification of the book's existence must how- ever be looked for, and it is hoped may be found, in the book itself, and not in the Preface. The work claims to be judged as a whole, but it may be allowable, in these days of scanty leisure, to indicate below a few instances of what is believed to be new matter in an edition of Marco Polo ; by which however it is by no means intended that all such matter is claimed by the editor as his own.|

* In the Quarterly Review for July, 1868. t M. Nicolas Khanikoff.

X In the Prelmiinary Notices will be found new matter on the Personal and Family History of the Traveller, illustrated by Documents ; and a more elaborate attempt than I have seen elsewhere to classify and account for the different texts of the work, and to trace their mutual relation.

As regards geographical elucidations, I may point to the explanation of the name Gheluckelati (i. p. 58), to the discussion of the route from Kerman to Hormuz, and the identification of the sites of Old Hormuz, of Cobinan and Dogana, the estabhsh- ment of the position and continued existence of Keshm, the note on Pein and Charchan, on Gog and Magog, on the geography of the route from Sindafii to Carajaii, on Aniii and Coloiiian, on Miitafili, Cail, and Ely.

As regards historical illustrations, I would cite the notes regarding the Queens

ORIGINAL PREFACE XXIU

From the commencement of the work it was felt that the task was one which no man, though he were far better equipped and much more conveniently situated than the present writer, could satisfactorily accomplish from his own resources, and help was sought on special points wherever it seemed likely to be found. In scarcely any quarter was the application made in vain. Some who have aided most materially are indeed very old and valued friends ; but to many others who have done l.he same the applicant was unknown ; and some of these again, with whom the editor began correspondence on this subject as a stranger, he is happy to think that he may now call friends.

To none am I more indebted than to the Comm. GuGLiELMO Berchet, of Venice, for his ample, accurate, and generous assistance in furnishing me with Venetian documents, and in many other ways. Especial thanks are also due to Dr. William Lockhart, who has supplied the materials for some of the most valuable illustrations ; to Lieutenant Francis Garnier, of the French Navy, the gallant and accomplished leader (after the death of Captain Doudart de la Gree) of the memorable expedi-

Bolgana and Cocachin, on the Karaujiahs, etc., en the title of King of Bengal applied to the K. of Burma, and those